Olympic Taekwondo is a sport style that emphasizes fast and precise striking, and the main goal is to prepare you to win points and matches in tournaments. On the other hand, the traditional taekwondo style focuses on self-defense, preparing you for full-contact fighting.
Kickboxing is a very effective self-defense system because the training simulates a real fight with the emphasis being on learning how to apply striking techniques in real life. With kickboxing, your mind and body will be conditioned to handle a real-life threat with an effective response.
Modern karate is ineffective in street fights because they are designed for sports competitions with rules and limits on where you can strike. In contrast, traditional karate is practical because it prepares you for real-life fighting where there are no rules and no limits.
Shadowboxing is a boxing exercise in which a fighter strikes the air while moving around and visualizing their opponent as if they were in front of them. Shadowboxing improves speed, technique, and, more importantly, muscle memory so that fighters can react without hesitation in a fight.
As a general rule, the key difference between the two is that Muay Thai allows the use of both hands, elbows, feet, and knees, while kickboxing only allows the use of hands and feet. Muay Thai also includes sweeps and clinches, while kickboxing focuses on striking and distance.
Shotokan Karate is one of four major styles of karate developed in Okinawa, Japan. It is a versatile style where the emphasis is on long and wide stances, linear techniques, speed, mobility, and quick and direct attacks. Modern Shotokan teaching emphasizes competition rather than self-defense.